So I am a fan of babywearing on the cheap; I have a beach towel and khanga that live in the car for torso carries, several half-tablecloths and selendangs that are awesome rebozo shorties,
or you can bust out your sewing machine and sew a few straight lines to make an honest-to-goodness ring sling. All of these are suitable options from newborn to small-child size, and you can honestly have a successful and practical baby-carrying career for very little cash.
If you want to get into the "German-style" woven school of wrapping, you're going to need a longer wrap; either DIY or purpose-woven. Yes, you can DIY, and if you have access to Walmart or Spotlight with a 40% off coupon and the ability to sew in a straight line, this is accessible under the $50 mark. If you're in the USA, check out osnaberg; here in Australia we find the "mexican woven" a good solution, or bottomweight linen.
Not sure if your fabric is sturdy enough or has a good diagonal "give"?
I HIGHLY recommend checking out the DIY threads over at TheBabywearer or joining one of the Facebook groups to access advice and info about fabric weight. Jan Andrea, of Sleeping Baby Productions, has put together a GREAT resource including links to simple and safe patterns.
Too hard or too time-consuming? Here are some of the brands that you can buy on the cheap (under $100). Please note that I have not been paid to include any links or mentions. :)
Want to find one of these to buy RIGHT NOW? Head over to google with your country and the carrier name/brand.
Ebay - selendangs, khanga/kitenge
Comfy Joey ring sling
Sleeping Baby Productions instock linen ring slings
Wrapamore ring slings
Soul Slings ring slings
Daiesu ring slings
Colimacon et Cie fabric for wrapping & Colimacon et Cie ring slings
Baranka woven wraps & ring slings
Yaro woven wraps & ring slings
Little Frog woven wraps & ring slings
Inda Jani woven wraps
BBSlen shorter woven wraps
Bara Barn short woven wraps
Baby-Doo USA short woven wraps
JPMBB basic stretchy wraps
Chekoh stretchy wraps
Hugabub stretchy wraps
ByKay stretchy wraps
Toto stretchy wraps
Lenny Lamb stretchy wraps
Caboo stretchy cross-wrap
Sleepy stretchy wrap
Boba stretchy wrap
MiniMonkey buckle carrier
Infantino Mei Tai
Bitybean buckle carrier (can also be used in water)
Pognae Baby Carrier buckle carrier
Walkabout mesh ring sling (water use)
This is a work in progress, so please let me know if there's a brand or carrier I should add!
I do not recommend buying constructed carriers such as mei tais or ring slings from eBay or etsy.
Please avoid suspiciously cheap ergos and manducas; they ARE faked and do not comply with safety standards.
It's worth paying the little bit extra for a carrier/manufacturer who complies with safety regulations and industry standards to ensure your child's safety.